27 June 2014
 Copenhagen, Denmark. Hello, Goodbye

By Corey Sandler, Destination Consultant Silversea Cruises

After a couple of loops of the Baltic, we are taking a jaunt into the North Sea and up the coast of Norway.

We say goodbye to guests who were with us, and welcome new friends aboard.

Here’s our itinerary:

Silversea Map 4415

Our voyage takes us from Copenhagen to the Norwegian fjord and coastal towns of Flam, Gudvangen, Hellesylt, Geiranger, and Kristiansund and to the glorious city of Bergen.

I’ll be posting new photos and text as we sail.

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Scenes of Copenhagen on a sunny day, a rare event in this preternaturally cool summer of 2014. All photos by Corey Sandler, all rights reserved.


25 June 2014
 Helsinki, Finland

The Old and the New and the Strange

By Corey Sandler, Destination Consultant Silversea Cruises

Silversea Silver Whisper docked right at the base of the city of Helsinki, Finland. One of the many advantages of a smaller ship is the ability to come in close; there were several other much larger ships in port but we didn’t see them–only the shuttle buses bringing their guests from the hinterlands to the city.

For more details on Helsinki and a bit of the complex story of Finland, please see my blog entry for 14 June 2014.

On this visit the downtown market square held something old renewed, and something old in a modern version.

The old renewed was Kauppahalli, an indoor marketplace. The building has been closed for the past several years for restoration and has just reopened. It offers a glorious selection of the fruits, vegetables, seafood, and other comestibles of Finland.

The old in a new version was the Finnair Sky Wheel between our ship and the market. It opened a few weeks ago. Ferris Wheels, of course, are an old entertainment but this one is a of a modern design. It stands 40 meters tall, about 130 feet. There are 30 cabins, each holding as many as eight passengers. For a few Krone more, you can book the VIP gondola which includes a glass floor and a bottle of champagne.

We chose to go shopping instead.

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Kauppahalli Market, near Market Square and our ship. Photos by Corey Sandler

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The Finnair Sky Wheel. Photos by Corey Sandler

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A modern shopping mall in an old district of Helsinki. Photos by Corey Sandler

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The old railway station in downtown is one of our favorite places, although a recent change has verged deep into the strange: one of the grand halls has been given over to a Burger King. Photos by Corey Sandler

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You want fries with that? Statues outside the railway station with the Burger King. Photos by Corey Sandler

We bid farewell and wish safe travels to our friends who have traveled with us on this cruise, from Stockholm to Tallinn, Saint Petersburg, Helsinki, and on to Copenhagen.

All text and photos copyright 2014 by Corey Sandler. If you would like to purchase a photo please contact me.

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

Now available, the revised Second Edition of “Henry Hudson Dreams and Obsession” by Corey Sandler, for the Amazon Kindle. You can read the book on a Kindle device, or in a Kindle App on your computer, laptop, tablet, or smartphone.

Here’s where to order a copy for immediate delivery:


Henry Hudson Dreams cover

Henry Hudson Dreams and Obsession: The Tragic Legacy of the New World’s Least Understood Explorer (Kindle Edition)


22-24 June 2014: Saint Petersburg, Russia

Looking for New Things in an Old Place

By Corey Sandler, Destination Consultant Silversea Cruises

We returned to glorious Saint Petersburg, this time greeted with near-summer-like weather. You can read more about an earlier visit this month in my blog entry for 15-17 June 2014.

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The spectacular Kronstadt Naval Cathedral is the central gathering place of the island. The old church, which suffered the indignity of being converted to a cinema during Soviet times, has been beautifully restored. All photos by Corey Sandler, all rights reserved.


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The interior of the church is one of the most spectacular we have seen, mixing ornate Russian Orthodox elements with ring lighting that reminded us somewhat of Agia Sophia and the Blue Mosque in Istanbul. All photos by Corey Sandler, all rights reserved.


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Kronstadt island was first developed by Peter the Great, and many of the naval elements includng canals, locks, and stone quays remain. All photos by Corey Sandler, all rights reserved.

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You must see the Hermitage, Catherine the Great’s fabulously decorated palace. The problem, though–especially in the summer months–is that it can be almost impossibly crowded. It sometimes feels as if the entire population of small towns–or countries–stands between you and the treasures.

On this cruise, though, we took advantage of a special evening tour after hours. We had a brief tour of some of the great halls and then a  performance by a talented Russian orchestra in one of the halls. As is perfectly appropriate for Russia’s European window on the world, most of the music was European: Mozart, Brahms, Mascagni. In a nod to one of Petersburg’s greats, we also heard from Mikhail Glinka.

All test and photos copyright 2014 by Corey Sandler. If you would like to purchase a copy, please contact me.


21 June 2014: Tallinn, Estonia

A Soviet Flashback

By Corey Sandler, Destination Consultant Silversea Cruises

Tallinn is a spectacular old city in an old land that has seen its ups and downs. I wrote about its history and some of its culture in my post of 18 June 2014, which you can read in the blog page for that date.

On this visit, I went on an shore excursion run by an Estonian who helps visitors gain a sense of the mostly unhappy times when Estonia was a Soviet Socialist Republic–the years after World War II until the early 1990s.

The tour–in an antiquated Soviet bus–veered between moments of great poignancy and humor. We heard of family and friends jailed or deported, of lack of food and culture, and we learned quite a bit about the resiliant sense of humor of ethnic Estonians.

And we visited a most unusual cemetery: a graveyard of deposed statues of Soviet herors including Lenin, Stalin, and others.

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All photos by Corey Sandler, all rights reserved.


20 June 2014: Stockholm, Sweden. Goodbye and Hello

By Corey Sandler, Destination Consultant Silversea Cruises

Goodbye to old friends, leaving us here in Stockholm, and hello to new guests coming aboard today.

Stockholm is the largest city of Sweden, the capital, and the official residence of the Swedish monarch as well as the prime minister. We begin another cruise here, back for a loop of the Baltic: Tallinn, Saint Petersburg, Helsinki, and Copenhagen. Here’s our itinerary:[whohit]-Stockholm 20Jun-[/whohit]

Silversea Map 4414

Stockholm city was founded about 1250 and has been at the country’s military, political, economic, and cultural center for almost all of that time.

Greater Stockholm spreads across fourteen islands on the south-central east coast of Sweden at the mouth of Lake Mälaren.

Stockholm’s core, the Old Town or Gamla Stan, was built on the central island beginning in the mid-13th century.

The city rose to prominence because of the trade with the Hanseatic League and links with Lübeck, Hamburg, Gdańsk, Visby, Reval (today’s Tallinn], and Riga.

In the past few years, the Royal Family has been busy with weddings and baby showers. But they need not worry about running out of space for the in-laws and the sisters, cousins, and aunts.

The Stockholm Palace is the official residence and major royal palace of the Swedish monarchy.


The Royal Palace in the heart of Stockholm. Photos by Corey Sandler

The palace has 609 rooms and is one of the largest royal palaces in the world still in use. Alongside is the Riksdag, Sweden’s parliament.

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Out in the country is Drottningholm Palace, the primary residence of the royal family. Commoners can tour the public rooms; in my opinion the classy way to arrive is aboard a century-old steamer that runs from near City Hall. Photos by Corey Sandler

Stockholm has an extraordinary collection of museums, about one hundred of them.

The National Museum of Fine Arts is in central Stockholm across the harbor from the palace. The museum was founded in 1792, installed in its North Italian Renaissance style building in 1866.

The collection include about half a million drawings from the Middle Ages to 1900, plus porcelain items, paintings, sculptures, and modern art.

The Moderna museet, the Museum of Modern Art, on the island of Skeppsholmen in central Stockholm, opened in 1958. Its collection includes pieces by Henri Matisse, Salvador Dalí and Picasso, but not as many as there were when they were first put on display.

In 1993, life followed art. Burglars came through the roof at night, basically borrowing the technique laid out in the 1955 French movie Rififi. Six works by Picasso and two by Georges Braque were stolen. Only three of the Picassos have been recovered. On the plus side, an Henri Matisse work called “Le Jardin”, stolen in 1987 and worth about $1 million, was recovered in London and returned to Stockholm in 2013.

There’s also the Nordiska Museum, filled with cultural artifacts of Sweden.

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The main hall of the Nordiska Museum. Photo by Corey Sandler

In town in the History Museum, with a small but rich history reaching back millennia.

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The Historical Museum in Stockholm. Photo by Corey Sandler

But for my money—or yours—the must-see museum in Stockholm, and one of the great exhibitions anywhere in the world, is the Vasa Museum.

When your eyes adjust to the dimly lit hall you see before you the only nearly intact 17th century ship that has ever been salvaged and put on display.


The extraordinary Vasa Museum. Photos by Corey Sandler

It is the 64-gun warship Vasa, which sank on her maiden voyage in 1628, nearly four hundred years ago. It was one of the largest and most heavily armed warships of her time, decorated with hundreds of sculptures, all of them painted in vivid colors.

Apparently they should have spent just a little bit more, on design and engineering. The ship was top-heavy and did not carry enough ballast down low near her keel.

On August 10, 1628, the ship sailed less than a nautical mile and then fell over and sank.

After then, Vasa was all but forgotten.

It was not until the late 1950s that the ship was found again, in a busy shipping lane just outside the Stockholm harbor. On April 24, 1961 she was brought to the surface, her hull mostly intact.

Thousands of artifacts and the remains of at least 15 people, along with articles of clothing, weapons, cannons, tools, coins, cutlery, food and drink, and six of the ten sails.

The Vasa Museum, constructed specifically for the ship, opened in 1990. Today, it is the most visited museum in Scandinavia.

One of our favorite places in Stockholm, not all that well-known and certainly not crowded, is Hallwyl House. This is the palatial home of Count and Countess Walther and Wilhelmina von Hallwyl, constructed in 1898 as a winter home for the immensely rich couple.

Last year, Stockholm added another museum to its trove of great treasures.

I didn’t say it was a great museum…but that’s just my opinion.

Abba The Museum opened on Djurgaarden island, next to the 17th-century Vasa museum and Skansen.

For better or for worse, the four members of Abba are back together, dressed like they never left the 1970s.

It appears that the group never threw anything away: costumes, instruments, ticket stubs, and hair gel.


Not high culture, but you might want to take a chance on it if your goal is to be a dancing queen. Mama mia! Photos by Corey Sandler

All text and photos copyright 2014 by Corey Sandler. If you would like to purchase a photo please contact me.

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

Now available, the revised Second Edition of “Henry Hudson Dreams and Obsession” by Corey Sandler, for the Amazon Kindle. You can read the book on a Kindle device, or in a Kindle App on your computer, laptop, tablet, or smartphone.

Here’s where to order a copy for immediate delivery:


Henry Hudson Dreams cover

Henry Hudson Dreams and Obsession: The Tragic Legacy of the New World’s Least Understood Explorer  (Kindle Edition)

18 June 2014: Tallinn, Estonia

By Corey Sandler, Destination Consultant Silversea Cruises

Two Millennia of Ups and Downs

The penultimate port call on our superb cruise in the Baltic Sea was Tallinn. On this cruise we had just about everything: history, culture, art, music, great food, and good company. The only thing we lacked was a touch of summer: we finished our tour in near-wintry temperatures and winds.

Tallinn is one of the best preserved medieval towns in Europe, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[whohit]-Tallinn 18Jun-[/whohit]

Over the centuries Estonia has been assaulted, occupied, liberated, and reoccupied by: Crusaders, Danes, early Germans, Swedes, Russians, Lithuanians, the Soviets, Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union again, modern Russia, electronic pirates of the Internet, and tourists.

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The Lower Town of Tallinn on Toompea Hill. Photo by Corey Sandler

Estonia was on the front line during the Livonian War of 1558-1583.

Combatants included the armies of Ivan the Terrible of Russia, Denmark, and Poland. The winner was Sweden, but battles with Poland continued for decades.

The Swedish period in Estonian history was a time of great cultural advancement. The University of Tartu—still in existence—opened in 1632.

In the Great Northern War—the same conflict that led Peter the Great to found Saint Petersburg—Sweden fought Russia, Denmark, and Poland. Russia claimed Estonia in 1710, and for the next two centuries its people were powerless serfs to the Tsars.

The Russian empire brought its own customs, architecture, and the Russian Orthodox religion.

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The Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in the upper town of Tallinn, a reminder of the Russian presence in old Estonia. Photo by Corey Sandler

Peter I began building the magnificent Kadriorg palace in 1718. Nicolo Michetti (who later designed Peterhof in Petersburg) created a Baroque version of an Italian villa for the Russian Emperor.

Kadriorg: Catherine’s Valley.

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Kadriorg in Tallinn; across the park is the elegant Swannery. Photos by Corey Sandler

It’s not always possible to start out with a palace; sometimes you need more modest accommodations during construction.

Peter bought a little cottage nearby. The house, with a kitchen and four rooms, is pretty much the way it was when Peter used it. His extra-tall chair dominates the tiny dining room.

Outside Kadriorg is Swan Lake. Some of the trees were supposed to be replanted in gardens in Saint Petersburg. After the death of Peter I, the horse chestnuts and the swans stayed in Kadriorg.

In the 19th Century came the National Awakening, spread by schools, literacy, books, and newspapers.

In Tartu in 1869, a song festival launched a movement to revive the Estonian national identity.

Tsar Alexander III, the repressive ruler who took the Russian throne in 1881 after the assassination of his father in Saint Petersburg sent troops to Estonia to enforce Russification.

Alexander Nevsky Cathedral is Tallinn’s largest and grandest cathedral. The richly decorated Orthodox church was built on Toompea Hill in 1900.

Taking advantage of the chaos in Russia caused by World War I and the Bolshevik Revolution, Estonia declared independence on February 24, 1918.

That did not last long. Within days, Germany took over. And then in November of the same year, Germany capitulated and the Soviets moved back in.

But the Estonians fought back while the Soviets tried to sort out their own internal conflicts.

In the Tartu Peace Treaty, signed February 2, 1920, Soviet Russia renounced claims to Estonia and Finland “for all time.” In 1921 the Republic of Estonia was accepted into the League of Nations. Social and political reforms were enacted and the country became a presence in the Baltic.

But as war again raged across Europe in 1939, Hitler and Stalin engineered the Molotov-Ribbentropp Pact, carving Eastern Europe into spheres of influence between Germany and the Soviet Union.

On June 16, 1940, Stalin accused the Baltic states of aggression and demanded the right to occupy them. Elections took place in July, with Soviet-approved candidates.

The peace between Hitler and Stalin ended abruptly on June 22, 1941 when Germany invaded Russia and its occupied states. Germany held Estonia for three years.

Soviet forces began air attacks in March of 1942, seriously damaging Tallinn in an attack two years later. By September 1944 the Germans retreated.

Estonia declared itself an independent Republic once again on September 18, but Soviet forces reached Tallinn four days later.

Few Estonians speak well of the Soviets, who exercised tight control over almost every aspect of life.


The former KGB headquarters in Tallinn; a plaque out front tells passersby that this was at the core of the Soviet oppression. Photo by Corey Sandler

Over the coming decades, hundreds of thousands of ethnic Russians were sent to live in the Estonian territory: Russification once again.

A bit of perspective: the Estonians lost more people during the first years of the Soviet occupation than during the German occupation that followed.

And Estonia lost more Jews during the Soviet times than the German occupation. The Jews were doctors, lawyers, teachers; the Soviets considered them class enemies and they were deported, many to Siberia.

Estonia would not regain its independence for fifty years, a mostly unwilling member of the USSR until 1991.

On February 24, 1977 a small act of rebellion: the blue-black-white Estonian flag was briefly raised in Tartu to mark the 59th anniversary of the first Estonian Republic.

Ten years later, a series came a second National Awakening.

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The Song Festival Grounds in Tallinn. Photo by Corey Sandler

In June 1988, more than a hundred thousand people packed the Song Festival Grounds, across the harbor from the heart of Tallinn. A few months later came the first public demand for independence.


The very avante-gard Kumu museum, near Kadriorg, includes a room full of busts with a hidden speaker system; they murmur to each other. Photo by Corey Sandler

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The very modern side of Tallinn, across from the old city. Photos by Corey Sandler

All text and photos copyright 2014 by Corey Sandler. If you would like to purchase a photo, please contact me.

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

Now available, the revised Second Edition of “Henry Hudson Dreams and Obsession” by Corey Sandler, for the Amazon Kindle. You can read the book on a Kindle device, or in a Kindle App on your computer, laptop, tablet, or smartphone.

Here’s where to order a copy for immediate delivery:


Henry Hudson Dreams cover

Henry Hudson Dreams and Obsession: The Tragic Legacy of the New World’s Least Understood Explorer  (Kindle Edition)

15-17 June 2014: Saint Petersburg, Russia

Cradle of Revolution, Capital of Culture

By Corey Sandler, Destination Consultant Silversea Cruises

Trick question: from the 9th century until the 19th century, which country was the big fish in the Baltic?

Not Russia.

Not Germany/Prussia/Austria.

It was Sweden.

In 1240, Prince of Novgorod Alexander Yaroslavich led the Russians to victory over the Swedes in the Battle of the Neva.

He changed his name to Alexander Nevsky, meaning “of the Neva.”

The victory became symbolic of Russia’s fight for independence.

And Nevsky became a Saint of the Russian Orthodox Church.

A Photo Album of Saint Petersburg. Photos by Corey Sandler, June 15-17, 2014

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The view from our ship of the Church of the Dormition, one of the lesser-known beauties of Petersburg. It includes ancient icons and fabulous frescoes; it is only now emerging from decades of Soviet abuse includeing a period of time when it was used for an indoor ice skating rink.

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Saint Isaac’s Cathedral,  left, and Kazan Cathedral (modeled after Saint Paul’s at the Vatican, an unusual adaptation of a Roman Catholic design for a Russian Orthodox Church.)

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The newly reopened Central Naval Museum, moved from the former Stock Exchange to a handsomely rebuilt old structure on the other bank of the Neva, includes artifacts dating back to Peter the Great himself.

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The Singer Sewing Machine building on Nevsky Prospect, a handsome shopping mall, and one of the many canals in what some call the Venice of the North.

Below Saint Petersburg: The Metro

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The Saint Petersburg Metro was actuall begun during World War II, but not completed until the 1950s. Because of the many canals and rivers, it is one of the deepest Metro systems in the world, and its stations amongst the most ornate. Photos by Corey Sandler

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Constantine Palace was already a burned-out shell when the Germans occupied the suburbs of Petersburg. It was only rebuilt and reopened in 2003, as a personal project promoted by Vladimir Putin as a showcase for international summits including the G20 and the G8 when Russia was still welcome as a member. We went out to make a visit and saw Putin’s empty pride. All photos by Corey Sandler


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The grave of Piotr Tchaikovsky, upper left.  All photos by Corey Sandler

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Not on the usual tourist path: The Russian Museum, with a fabulous collection of homegrown art. At right, a work by Ilya Repin. Photos by Corey Sandler

In 1613, the second and final Russian imperial dynasty began when the Romanovs took power.

In 1682, Peter the Great was crowned at the age of ten in an arrangement brokered by Sophia, one of Tsar Alexei’s daughters from his first marriage.

Peter cared little for intrigues of court.

He was much more interested in playing with his toy soldiers, and later his real soldiers.

Peter’s goal was to open trade with Europe. At that time Russia’s only outlet to the sea was at Arkhangelsk on the cold White Sea.

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Menchikov Palace, along the River Neva across from the Hermitage. Photos by Corey Sandler

The Swedes held the Baltic Sea ports to the north. The Ottomans controlled the Black Sea to the south.

Peter visited Europe, sometimes in disguise, which is hard to imagine, since he stood about six-foot-eight-inches tall and sometimes included dwarves in his traveling court.

In 1695, Peter tried to capture Azov on the Black Sea from the Ottomans. After several attempts, he succeeded in 1698—but the port was useless because the Ottomans still controlled the exit from the Black Sea at Constantinople.

And so Peter launched the Northern War with Sweden in 1700.

On May 27, 1703 the Peter and Paul Fortress was begun on an island in the Neva. Several days later Peter built a wooden cabin, the first residence.

By 1712 Saint Petersburg was Russia’s capital.

After Peter the Great died in 1725, his wife Catherine briefly took the throne but not much power. Peter’s daughter Elizabeth became Empress in 1741, leaving most affairs of state to her advisors. She concentrated on art and architecture and Saint Petersburg blossomed.

Elizabeth ordered Peter’s estate at Peterhof remodeled, combining Italian and Muscovite Baroque styles. The Grand Palace and fountains at Peterhof were covered with gold and precious stones, a great expense for an impoverished nation.

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Yusupov Palace, along the Moika Canal, was owned by a fabulously rich noble–not a member of the royalty. It was here that Rasputin’s extended murder took place. The home includes a private theater, today used for small recitals. Photos by Corey Sandler

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Pavlovsk Palace out in the country, and the Stock Exchange (pre-Communist, of course) and the Rostral Columns on the Strelka across from the Hermitage. Photos by Corey Sandler

In 1744, princess Sophia Augusta Frederica arrived from the German principality of Anhalt-Zerbst (today’s Szczecin in Poland).

She came to meet her future husband, Grand Duke Piotr Fiodorovich. 14-year-old Sophia converted to Russian Orthodox and changed her name to Yekaterina.

They married in 1745; in 1762, her husband assumed the throne as Peter III.

Didn’t work out that well.

Six months into his reign, with Catherine’s consent or knowledge, he was overthrown by the Imperial Guard and killed.

That’s a cold marriage.

Empress Catherine II (Catherine the Great) set about turning Saint Petersburg into one of the grand cities of Europe. She decided to decorate the walls of the Winter Palace.

Thus was born the Hermitage, and the development of the handsome, European-oriented city of Saint Petersburg was well underway.

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Another less-visited gem: The Museum of Ethnography, begun by Nicholas II. It was completed after he was killed, but somehow managed to hold on to its fabulous collection through the Soviet years. Photo by Corey Sandler

Okay, that was just enough history.

In the Venice of the North there are something like 300 bridges, many of them works of art.

Our handsome, smaller ship Silver Whisper is able to sail almost right into town: along the Angliyskaya Nabererzhnaya, the English Embankment just downriver from The Hermitage.

Those monster cruise ships? They have to dock miles away, not quite in Finland but you just might be able to see Helsinki from their upper decks.

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Two means of transport: the Petersburg Metro, not quite as opulent as the Moscow subway but still an amazing system. At right, a display the Museum of Cosmonautics at the Peter and Paul Fortress. Photos by Corey Sandler

Here are some more photos from Saint Petersburg; some are ones quite familiar to visitors. Others are off the beaten track; most foreign visitors to Russia require a visa for any independent touring.

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The Big Three of Petersburg for most visitors: The Hermitage, the Church on Spilled Blood, and Catherine’s Palace. Photos by Corey Sandler

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Inside and outside the Hermitage. At times I have waited hours to be able to grab a shot without hundreds or thousands of tourists in the frame. Photos by Corey Sandler

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Outside and on top of Saint Isaac’s. The shaky climb is worth the effort but not for those with fear of heights. Photos by Corey Sandler

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Within Peter and Paul Fortress. Photos by Corey Sandler

All text and photos copyright 2014 by Corey Sandler. If you would like to purchase a copy of a photo, please contact me.

14 June 2014: Helsinki, Finland

By Corey Sandler, Destination Consultant Silversea Cruises

Both Sides Against the Middle

Helsinki is a thoroughly modern Scandinavian city with a typically complex story for this part of the world.

Helsinki is the capital and largest city of Finland, but its roots reach back to Sweden, interrupted by war and occupation by Imperial Russia and the Soviet Union.

Finland, roughly the size of Germany, is on the Gulf of Finland, just 300 kilometers or 186 miles from Saint Petersburg. Tallinn, Estonia is 80 kilometers or 50 miles across the Baltic Sea.

Modern Helsinki is Finland’s center of politics, finance, technology, and education with eight major universities.

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Scenes of Helsinki: The Helsinki Cathedral and the Ateneum. Photos by Corey Sandler

Helsingfors (Helsinge Rapids) was founded by King Gustav I of Sweden in 1550. It was intended as a trading rival to the Hanseatic city of Reval (today’s Tallinn in Estonia.)

In 1703 Peter the Great founded his new Russian capital, Saint Petersburg, at the end of the Gulf of Finland.

From the start, Peter was determined that Russia be a great maritime power—as a young man he traveled through Europe to learn about shipbuilding and tactics, even working for a while as a tradesman.

Once Peter had his capital, he began to expand his reach toward the Baltic and his neighbor to the west: the Finnish region of Sweden.

In the Gulf of Finland he built the fortified naval base of Kronstadt.

This didn’t merely upset Sweden. Other European states were also concerned, especially France, with which Sweden had a military alliance.

In 1757 the Swedes decided to fortify the Russian frontier, and to establish a naval base at Helsinki as a counter to Kronstadt.

Work began on the islands off Helsinki in 1748. It became the great naval fortress of Sveaborg.

Svea as in Mother Svea, the national emblem of Sweden. Borg as in fortress.

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Sveaborg, now Suomenlinna Fortress in the harbor of Helsinki. Photos by Corey Sandler

In a brief diplomatic somersault during the Napoleonic Wars, France’s Emperor Napoleon agreed to allow Czar Alexander I to push Sweden out of Finland in 1808.

The Russians easily took Helsinki and began bombarding the fortress. To the consternation of the Swedes, the commander of Sveaborg negotiated a cease-fire and surrendered almost 7,000 men to the Russians.

He may have realized he was in a no-win situation. He may have sought to save civilian lives in Helsinki. And he may have fallen victim to psychological warfare by the Russians who surrounded and isolated Sveaborg.

In the 1809 Treaty of Fredrikshamn, Finland was ceded from Sweden and became an autonomous grand duchy within the Russian Empire.

Although the Finns never particularly liked the Swedes, they were even less happy with the Russians.

But the Russians helped develop Helsinki into a major city. The Russians expanded Sveaborg with more barracks, fortifications, and naval facilities.

During the build-up to World War I, the fortress was beefed up again as part of the outer defenses of the Russian capital of Saint Petersburg.

The Russians rebuilt much of the heart of Helsinki in neoclassical style, resembling Saint Petersburg.

Just above our ship on the hillside is the Uspenski Cathedral, one of the last obvious vestiges of Imperial Russian occupation of Finland. Completed in 1868, it was modeled after a 16th century church near Moscow.

Helsinki Uspenski1

Uspenski Cathedral in Helsinki. Photo by Corey Sandler

But in 1917, as Czarist Russia was devolving in Revolution, Finland won its independence.

Among the first acts by the Finns was to drop the Swedish name Sveaborg in favor of Suomenlinna, which means Finland’s Castle.

The Finns headed straight for a small Russian Orthodox Church on the island. They took down the onion domes, converting its tower into a lighthouse.

Today Suomenlinna is no longer a fortress. Instead it is one of the most popular tourist attractions in Helsinki, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Helsinki Market1 Helsinki Market2 Helsinki Market3

More scenes of Helsinki: the market. Photos by Corey Sandler

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The old-fashioned National Museum and the very, very modern Kiasma art museum. Photos by Corey Sandler

After World War I, the relationship between Finland and the Soviet Union was tense.

Some Finns held a dream of “Greater Finland” which included the Soviet-controlled portion of Karelia.

That did not sit well with the Soviets; the 1930s Finnish border was only 20 miles away from Leningrad—today’s Saint Petersburg.

In addition, the northern coast of the Gulf of Finland—the sea approach to Petersburg—was Finnish.

Up north, the entrance to the vital port of Murmansk was also flanked by Finnish territory.

And so, the military history of Finland during World War II is mostly shades of gray.

I’ll leave it to you to decide whether Finland was on the side of the angels at any point.

Between 1939 and 1945, Finland fought three wars: the Winter War alone against the Soviet Union, the Continuation War in association with Nazi Germany against the Soviet Union, and finally the Lapland War at the instigation of the Soviet Union against Germany.

So, they fought against the Soviet Union before they fought with them.

And they fought with Nazi Germany before they fought against them.

All text and photos copyright 2014 by Corey Sandler. If you would like to purchase a copy of a photo, please contact me.

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

Now available, the revised Second Edition of “Henry Hudson Dreams and Obsession” by Corey Sandler, for the Amazon Kindle. You can read the book on a Kindle device, or in a Kindle App on your computer, laptop, tablet, or smartphone.

Here’s where to order a copy for immediate delivery:


Henry Hudson Dreams cover

Henry Hudson Dreams and Obsession: The Tragic Legacy of the New World’s Least Understood Explorer  (Kindle Edition)

12 June 2014: Riga, Latvia

Reborn Free

By Corey Sandler, Destination Consultant Silversea Cruises

I was once 22 years old.

And my wife and I raised a couple of children from birth to adulthood—including a not-so-wonderful period of time in which they were 22 years old.

You remember the time, right?

Latvia and Estonia each emerged from behind the Iron Curtain 22 years ago.

Both countries are by no means newborns; their history goes back thousands of years.[whohit]-Riga 12Jun-[/whohit]

They were under the thumb of Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union for the second half of the 20th century.

And now they are in their twenties: full of energy, embued with talent, prone to momentary flashes of brilliance and great, clumsy stumbles.

A Photo Album: Riga, Latvia 12 June 2014

RIGA Street

On the street in Riga. Photo by Corey Sandler

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Riga BLOG 12June2014_DSC6845 Riga BLOG 12June2014_DSC6847

All photos by Corey Sandler, copyright 2014. All rights reserved.

This year, 2014, Riga takes the spotlight as the European Capital of Culture.

We’re coming in summer, but Merry Christmas nevertheless. Riga claims that the idea of a decorated Christmas tree began right here. There are documents from the House of Blackheads reporting a tree was raised in 1510.

It wasn’t an evergreen with tinsel and LED lights. It was a pyramid-shaped wooden structure, decorated with dried flowers, fruit and vegetables, and straw toys.

RIGA Christmas Tree

A Christmas Tree in downtown Riga. Photo by Corey Sandler

Then, some say, the tree was paraded around the meeting hall before being set on fire to signify the end of the old year and the beginning of the new.

Actually, the Blackheads were active in Riga and in Estonia and both places claim bragging rights.

Russian and Soviet Shadows

In the 1880s, under Czar Alexander III, a period of Russification began.

When the Soviet Union swept in at the start of World War II and then again in the Cold War years from 1945 to 1991, there were more intense efforts to Russify Latvia.

RIGA Soviet War Monument

A Soviet World War II Memorial in Latvia. Photo by Corey Sandler

Waves of Russian immigrants came from Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia itself. In 1935, ethnic Latvians made up about 80 percent of the population; today, about half.

With independence in 1991, Latvian was made the official language. There is, though, bilingual education in primary schools for ethnic minorities including Russian, Yiddish, Polish, Lithuanian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Estonian, and Roma.

At the same time, they are trying to remove foreign words, mostly Russian and English terms.

Despite two world wars and German and Soviet occupation, Riga has managed to retain a colorful and handsome central core, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Rebuilding some of its greatest churches and buildings has only been completed in the last decade. They range in design from Gothic to Modernist.

The city is particularly notable for its extensive Jugendstil or German Art Nouveau architecture. Many of the more spectacular structures were designed by Mikhail Eisenstein, a Russian architect who worked in Riga early in the 20th century.


Some of the amazing Jugenstil or German Art Nouveau architecture in downtown Riga. Photos by Corey Sandler

 All text and photos copyright 2014 by Corey Sandler. If you would like to purchase a photo, please contact me.


11 June 2014: Klaipeda, Lithuania

The Best Port in the Country

By Corey Sandler, Destination Consultant Silversea Cruises

Klaipeda is the largest, most successful, most impressive port in the Republic of Lithuania.[whohit]-Klaipeda 11Jun-[/whohit]

It is also the only port in Lithuania. I’m just saying.

The port and city have been through many hands across its history, spending most of its modern life as part of Germany, then emerging from Soviet control as part of free Lithuania.

A Klaipeda Photo Album, June 11, 2014

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Klaipeda BLOG 11June2014_DSC6823 Klaipeda BLOG 11June2014_DSC6817

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All photos by Corey Sandler. All rights reserved, copyright 2014

During the night, sailing northeast from Gdansk, Poland we passed along the Russian exclave of Kaliningrad, the former German city of Königsberg. It’s a disconnected piece of Russia, not much in the news although its Baltic neighbors–Ukraine on their minds—eye it warily.

Modern Lithuania borders Latvia to the north, Belarus to the east and south, Poland to the south, and Kaliningrad to the southwest.

By the end of the 14th century, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was by some measures the largest country in Europe.

It extended from the Baltic Sea at Klaipeda to the Black Sea at Odessa, encompassing Belarus, Ukraine, and parts of Poland and Russia.

In geopolitical terms, Lithuania has always been betwixt and between, one of those countries that has both benefited and been severely punished for its location.

It stands between Germany and Russia. It once had ports on both the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea.

For those reasons and others, war has ground through Lithuania in all directions.

For much of its history, Klaipeda was known by its Germanic name of Memel.

After the unification of the German Empire in 1871, Memel became Germany’s most northerly city.

It began to lose out to the nearby port of Königsberg, the capital of the province, which at the time was capable of handling larger vessels.

After World War II, it remained in Soviet hands.

In March 1990, a year before the formal break-up of the Soviet Union, Lithuania became the first Soviet republic to declare independence.

All photos copyright 2014 by Corey Sandler. All rights reserved. If you would like to purchase a copy, please contact me.

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

Now available, the revised Second Edition of “Henry Hudson Dreams and Obsession” by Corey Sandler, for the Amazon Kindle. You can read the book on a Kindle device, or in a Kindle App on your computer, laptop, tablet, or smartphone.

Here’s where to order a copy for immediate delivery:


Henry Hudson Dreams cover

Henry Hudson Dreams and Obsession: The Tragic Legacy of the New World’s Least Understood Explorer  (Kindle Edition)

10 June 2014: A New Journey Begins. Gdansk, Poland

Gdansk, Poland

By Corey Sandler, Destination Consultant Silversea Cruises

A Beginning and an End

Welcome aboard. Our cruise aboard Silversea Silver Whisper began yesterday in Copenhagen.

We’re set for a circle of the Baltic, from Denmark to Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Finland, Russia, Estonia, and Sweden.

Silversea Map 4413

We begin our cruise in the Baltic in Gdansk, a place of great history for Poland, two World Wars, and the Soviet Union.[whohit]-Gdansk 10June-[/whohit]

Gdansk may have seen the first military action of World War II, and also the place where the first successful opposition to Soviet rule arose four decades later.

In the 20th century, a beginning and an end.

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Scenes from the old city of Gdansk on a glorious June day. Photos by Corey Sandler

Gdańsk, Gdynia, and the spa town of Sopot make up the Trójmiasto, the Tri-cities.

Gdańsk is at the mouth of the Motława River, a branch of the Vistula or Wisła, Poland’s longest river.

The Wisła flows 650 miles or 1,400 kilometers through Kraków and Warsaw before reaching the Bay of Gdańsk.

Norwegian Vikings sailed up the Vistula, and it was later a major trade route from the Polish-Lithuania confederation to Western Europe.

Sopot is considered Poland’s premier seaside resort, which might seem faint praise since the country was cut off from the sea for decades at a time. But it is a lively place today.

Sopot became part of the Free City of Gdańsk under the Treaty of Versailles and the Grand Hotel (now the Sofitel Grand Sopot Hotel) was a popular casino and spa in a golden age between the wars.

GDANSK Grand Hotel Sopot

The Grand Hotel Sopot. Photo by Corey Sandler

The First Shots of World War II

At 4:45am on September 1, 1939, the elderly German battleship Schleswig-Holstein, supposedly on a goodwill visit opened fire on the Polish garrison at Westerplatte in the port of Danzig, today’s Gdansk.

On September 3, Britain and France declared war on Germany. Within two weeks Warsaw and most of western Poland had fallen to German forces.

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Silver Whisper sailed into Gdansk and docked at Westerplatte, within a few hundred feet of where the first military action of World War II took place in 1939. Today a monument marks the unhappy moment. Photos by Corey Sandler

Under terms of the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact which carved up the region to the satisfaction of Hitler and Stalin, the Germans were met by Soviets coming west. The Germans displaced most ethnic Poles, sending millions of Jews and others to concentration or extermination camps.

About 35 miles east of Gdansk is the Stutthof concentration camp.The origins of the camp date back to the prewar Free City of Danzig. Nazi functionaries made plans for a camp to detain and eventually exterminate undesirable elements. It opened in August 1939, before the German invasion.

Under German occupation, Poland was dotted with concentration and extermination camps, about 457 in total. About 5 million Polish citizens went through the camps. About 1.1 million were murdered at Auschwitz, about 870,000 at Treblinka, 434,000 at Belzec, and 200,000 at Sobibor.

When the Soviets led the charge back toward Germany in 1945, what little was left in much of Poland was destroyed by infantry and aerial bombardment. The Soviets killed or displaced millions more.

GDANSK Long Street GDANSK Artus Fountain GDANSK Scenes4 GDANSK Scenes3 GDANSK Scenes2 GDANSK Scenes1

Scenes of Gdansk, a handsome city rebuilt from the rubble of German, then Soviet assaults in World War II. Photos by Corey Sandler

Modern Gdansk

Today Gdansk is a handsome and bustling city. It appears centuries old, but most of what greets visitors has been rebuilt since World War II.

So, World War II essentially started in Gdansk, and there followed four decades of misery as a Soviet puppet state. But the beginning of the end of the Soviet Union also has some of its roots here.

The Solidarity workers’ union rose at the Gdansk and Gdynia shipyards.

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The Gdansk Shipyard and monuments to Solidarity. Photos by Corey Sandler

Some of the people involved in the events were very well-known:

Pope John Paul II, born Carol Karol Wojtyła in Wadowice near Krakow.

Lech Wałęsa, born in 1943, was an electrician. Soon after joining the Lenin Shipyards in Gdańsk, he became a leader of the dissident trade-union there.

He was harassed by the Communist authorities, fired in 1976, and arrested several times. In August 1980, he was instrumental in political negotiations that unexpectedly led to an agreement between striking workers and the government.

The United States and other western powers and groups provided aid and applied pressure, emboldening the Solidarity trade union.

In the United States, some unusual overt and covert alliances formed including American union leaders and incoming president Ronald Reagan, unnatural allies.

Lech Walesa was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983. By 1989, Brezhnev was dead and the Soviet Union teetered on collapse.

In that year, the Polish government allowed part of the Parliament to be freely elected, and candidates allied with Solidarity won nearly as many seats as the ruling Communist party.

In November 1990, Lech Walesa won Poland’s first direct Presidential election.

All photos and text copyright 2014 by Corey Sandler. If you would like to purchase a photo, please contact me.